HOWARD WILLIAMS

Senior Scientist
 
Department of Entomology
Texas A&M University
College Station, TX 77843-2475
(979) 845-4040
rrj1653@acs.tamu.edu

RESEARCH INTERESTS

 My research interests include insect-plant interactions, insect pheromone chemistry, plant derived natural products, and conformational analysis of biologically active chemicals utilizing NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling.  Chromatographic and spectroscopic hardware and computer programs have been designed to further this research.  Recently, studies of the relationship between conformation and activity of insect neuropeptide analogs with potential insecticidal activity and plant derived chemicals such as the anti-cancer agent Taxol have led to development of new computational methods broadly applicable to conformational analysis of small molecules.
 

        
 
 
 

 CURRICULUM VITAE
 

Howard J. Williams, Jr.
 

EDUCATION:
 Post Doctoral: State University of New York, Syracuse, N.Y.,
  1977-1978 with Dr. R. M. Silverstein.
 Graduate: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Ph.D.   Organic Chemistry, 1977, with Dr. J. L. Coke.
 Undergraduate: Duke University, B.S. Chemistry, 1971.

EXPERIENCE:
 2/86-present: Senior Scientist, Center for Biological NMR, Department   of Chemistry and Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.
 9/85-2/86: Associate Research Chemist, Department of Entomology,   Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.
 8/78-9/85: Assistant Research Chemist, Department of Entomology,
  Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.
 8/77-8/78 Postdoctoral Fellow, State University of New York,   Syracuse, N. Y.

PERSONAL INFORMATION:
 Born: June 16, 1949.
 Marital status: Married, two children
 Address: 1104 Faraway Island Drive, College Station, TX 77845
 Residence Phone: 409-690-7425
 Work Phone: 409-845-4040

PUBLICATIONS:

1. J. L. Coke, H. J. Williams, and S. Natarajan, A New Preparation of  Acetylenic Ketones and Application to the Synthesis of exo-Brevicomin, the Pheromone from Dendroctonus brevicomis, J. Org. Chem. 1977, 42, 2380.

2. L. R. Smith, H. J. Williams, and R. M. Silverstein, Facile Synthesis of Optically Active 2-Ethyl-1,6- dioxaspiro[4.4]nonane, Component of the Aggregation Pheromone of the Beetle Pityogenes chalcographus, Tetrahedron Lett. 1978, 35, 3231.

3. L. R. Smith and H. J. Williams, Glutamic Acid in Pheromone Synthesis, a Useful Chiral Synthon, J. Chem. Ed., 1979, 56, 696.

4. C. Phillips, R. Jacobson, B. Abrahams, H. J. Williams, and L. R. Smith, Useful Route to 1-6-Dioxaspiro[4.4]nonane and 1,6- Dioxaspiro[4.5]decane Derivatives, J. Org. Chem. 1979, 56, 1920.

5. S. B. Vinson, S. A. Phillips, Jr., and H. J. Williams, The Function of the Post Pharyngeal Glands of the Red Imported Fire Ants, Solenopsis invicta (Buren), J. Insect Physiol. 1980, 26, 645.

6. H. J. Williams and  S. B. Vinson,  All Glass System for Preparative Gas Chromatography Using Capillary Columns, J. Chem. Ecol. 1980, 6, 973.

7. H. J. Williams, R. M. Silverstein, W. E. Burkholder, and A. Khorramshahi, Dominicalure 1 and 2, Components of the Aggregation Pheromone of the Lesser Grain Borer Beetle Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), J. Chem. Ecol. 1981, 7, 759.

8. H. J. Williams, M. R. Strand, and S. B. Vinson, Synthesis and Purification of the Allofarnesenes, Tetrahedron 1981, 37, 2763.

9. H. J. Williams, M. R. Strand,  and S. B. Vinson, Trail Pheromone of the Red Imported Fire Ant Solenopsis invicta, Experientia 1981, 37, 1159.

10. R. Jacobson, R. J. Taylor, H. J. Williams, and L. R. Smith, Naturally Occurring Spirocyclic Ketals from Lactones. 3, J. Org. Chem. 1982, 47, 3140.

11. R. S. Petralia, H. J. Williams, and S. B. Vinson, The Hindgut of Larvae of the Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta (Buren): Ultrastructure and Physiology of Excretion, Insectes Sociaux1982, 29, 332.

12. S. B. Vinson, H. J. Williams, G. W. Frankie, J. W. Wheeler, M. S. Blum, and R. C. Coville, Mandibular Glands of Male Centris adani, Their Morphology, Chemical Constituents, and Their Function in Scent Marking and Territorial Behavior, J. Chem. Ecol. 1982, 8, 319.

13. G. E. Spates, R. D. Stipanovic, H. J. Williams, and G. M. Holman, Mechanism of Haemolysis in a Blood Sucking Dipteran, Stomoxys calcitrans, Insect Biochem. 1982, 12, 707.

14. G. W. Elzen, H. J. Williams, and S. B. Vinson,   Response by the Parasitoid Campoletis sonorensis (Hymenoptera:  Ichneumonidae) to Synomones in Plants:  Implications for Host Habitat Location, Environ. Entomol. 1983, 12, 1872.

15. M. K. Terry, H. J. Williams, H. L. Kim, L. Post, and E. M. Bailey, Ovine Urinary Metabolites of Hymenoxon, a Toxic Sesquiterpene Lactone Isolated from Hymenoxys odorata, J. Agri. Food Chem., 1983, 31, 1208.
 
16. H. J. Williams, G. W. Elzen, M. R. Strand, and S. B. Vinson, Chemistry of the Dufour's Gland Secretions of Xylocopa virginica texana and Xylocopa micans (Hymenoptera:  Anthophoridae)--A Comparison and Re-evaluation of Previous Work, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 1983, 74, 759.

17. H. J. Williams, S. B. Vinson, G. W. Frankie, R. E.  Coville,  and G. W. Ivie, Description, Chemical Contents, and Function of the Tibial Gland of Centris nitida and Centris trigonoides subtarsata (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae) in the Costa Rica Dry Forest, J. Kansas Entomol. 1984. 57, 50.

18. S. B. Vinson, H.J. Williams, G. W. Frankie, and R. E. Coville, Description and Identification of the Contents of the Mandibular Glands of Several Species of Male Centris Bees (Hymenoptera:  Apoidea: Anthophoridae) from Costa Rica, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 1984, 77, 685.

19. R. R. Cogburn, W. E. Burkholder, and H. J. Williams, Field Tests of Dominicalure, an Aggregation Pheromone of the Lesser Grain Borer, Environ. Entomol. 1984, 13, 162.

20. G. W. Elzen, H. J. Williams, and S. B. Vinson, Isolation, Identification, and Bioassay of Cotton Synomones Mediating Searching Behavior by Parasitoid Campoletis sonorensis(Hymenoptera:  Ichneumonidae), J. Chem. Ecol. 1984, 10, 1251.

21. G. W. Elzen, H. J. Williams, and S. B. Vinson, Role of Diet in Host Selection of Heliothis virescens by Parasitoid Campoletis sonorensis (Hymenoptera:  Ichneumonidae), J. Chem. Ecol. 1984, 10, 1535.

22. D. E. Ball, H. J. Williams, and S. B. Vinson,  Chemical Analysis of the Male Aedeagal Bladder in the Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, J. New York Entomol. Soc. 1984, 92, 365.

23. G. W. Elzen, H. J. Williams, A. A. Bell, R. D. Stipanovic, and S. B. Vinson, Quantification of Volatile Terpenes of Glanded and Glandless Gossypium hirsutum L. Cultivars and Lines by Gas Chromatography, J. Agri. Food Chem. 1985, 6, 1079.

24. R. L. Ziprin, K. R. Beerwinkle, and H. J. Williams, Gossonorol Induction of Prostaglandin F2  in Pulmonary Alveolar Macrophages, Cotton Dust (9th Annual) 1985, 120.

25. G. W. Elzen, J. J. Williams, A. A. Bell, R. D. Stipanovic, and S. B. Vinson, Volatile Terpene Content of Glanded and Glandless Cotton Cultivars and Lines, Proc. Ninth Cotton Dust Res. Conf., New Orleans, LA, 1985, p. 227.

26. J. Leos-Martinez, T. A. Granovsky, H. J. Williams, S. B. Vinson, and W. E. Burkholder, Estimation of Aerial Density of the Lesser Grain Borer (Coleoptera:  Bostrichidae) in a Warehouse Using Dominicalure Traps, J. Econ. Entomol. 1986, 79, 1134.

27. R. Montandon, H. J. Williams, W. L. Sterling, R. D. Stipanovic, and S. B. Vinson, Comparison of the Development of Alabama argillacea (Huebner) and Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera:  Noctuidae) Fed Glanded and Glandless Cotton Leaves, Environ. Entomol. 1986, 15, 128.

28. S. B. Vinson, G. W. Frankie, and H. J. Williams, Description of a New Dorsal Mesosomal Gland from Two Neotropical Xylocopa Species (Hymenoptera:  Anthophoridae) from Costa Rica, J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 1986, 59, 185.

29. H. J. Williams, M. R. Strand, G. W. Elzen, S. B. Vinson, and S. J. Merritt, Nesting Behavior, Nest Architecture, and Use of Dufour's Gland Lipids in Nest Provisioning by Megachile integraand M. mendica mendica (Hymenoptera:  Megachilidae), J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 1986, 59, 588.

30. G. W. Elzen, H. J. Williams, and S. B. Vinson, Wind Tunnel Flight Responses by Hymenopterous Parasitiod Campoletis sonorensis to Cotton Cultivars and Lines, Entomol. exp. appl. 1986, 42, 285.

31. R. D. Stipanovic, H. J. Williams, and L. A. Smith, Cotton Terpenoid Inhibition of Heliothis virescens Development, Book Chapter in "Natural Resistance of Plants to Pests", M. A. Green and P. A. Hedin, Eds., ACS Symposium Series #296, 1986, p. 79.

32. A. Bell, R. D. Stipanovic, G. W. Elzen, and H. J. Williams, Natural Products Content of Cotton Bracts and Mill Dust, Volatile Terpenes and Terpenoid Aldehydes, Cotton Dust (10th Annual) 1986, 30.

33. A. A. Bell, R. D. Stipanovic, G. W. Elzen, and H. J. Williams, Structural and Genetic Variation of Natural Pesticides in Pigment Glands of Cotton (Gossypium), book chapter in "Allelochemicals:  Role in Agriculture and Forestry", G. R. Waller, Ed., ACS Symposium Series #330, 1987, p. 477.

34. G. W. Elzen, H. J. Williams, S. B. Vinson, and J. E. Powell, Comparative Flight Behavior of Campoletis sonorensis and Microplitis croceipes:  Effects of Physical Factors on Resource Allocation, Entomol. exp. appl. 1987, 45, 175.

35. G. Muller, J. Schmiedl, E. Schneider, R. Sedlmeier, G. Worner, A. I. Scott, H. J. Williams, P. J. Santander, N. J. Stolowich, P. E. Fagerness, N. E. MacKenzie, and H. P. Driemler, Structure of Factor S3, a Metabolite of Propionibacterium shermaniiDerived from Uroporphorinogen 1, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1987, 24, 741.

36. H. J. Williams, H. L. Kim, and A. C. Ray,  3 Piperideine Alkaloids from the Toxic Plant Lobelia berlandieri, J. Agri. Food Chem. 1987, 35, 19.

37. J. Leos-Martinez, T. A. Granovsky, H. J. Williams, S. B. Vinson, and W. E. Burkholder, Pheromonal Trapping Methods for the Lesser Grain Borer Rhyzopertha dominica (Fab.) (Coleoptera:  Bostrichidae), Environ. Entomol. 1987, 16, 747.

38. R. Montandon, R. D. Stipanovic, H. J. Williams, W. L. Sterling, and S. B. Vinson, Nutritional Indices and Excretion of Gossypol by Alabama argillacea (Hubner) and Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera:  Noctuidae) Fed Glanded and Glandless Cotyledonary Cotton Leaves, J. Econ. Entomol. 1987, 80, 32.

39. H. J. Williams, S. B. Vinson, and G. W. Frankie, Chemical Content of the Dorsal Mesosomal Gland of Two Xylocopa species (Hymenoptera:  Anthophoridae) from Costa Rica, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 1987, 86, 311.

40. R. D. Stipanovic, H. J. Williams, D. P. Muehleisen, and F. W. Plapp, Jr., Synthesis of Deuterated and Tritiated Gossypol, J. Labelled Compounds Radiopharm., 1987, 24, 741.

41. A. C. Ray, H. J. Williams, and J. C. Reagor, Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from Senecio longilobus and Senecio glabellus, Phytochem., 1987, 26, 2431.

42. A. C. Mintzer, H. J. Williams, and S. B. Vinson, Identity and Variation of Hexane Soluble Cuticular Components Produced by the Acacia Ant Pseudomyrmex ferruginea, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 1987, 86B, 27.

43. D. Crump, R. M. Silverstein, H. J. Williams, and T. D. Fitzgerald, Identification of Trail Pheromone of Larva of Eastern Tent Caterpillar Malacosoma americanum (Lepidoptera:  Lasiocampidae), J. Chem. Ecol. 1987, 13, 397.

44. A. I. Scott, P. Santander, H. J. Williams, N. J. Stolowich, G. Muller,  J. Schmiedl, E. Schneider, R. Sedlmeier, and G. Worner, Factor S1, A Natural Corphin from Propionibacterium shermanii, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1987, 24, 6902.

45. H. J. Williams, R. D. Stipanovic, L. A. Smith, S. B. Vinson, P. O. Darnell, R. Montandon, D. L. Begin, G. W. Elzen, H. Gunasena, and A. A. Bell, Effects of Gossypol and Other Cotton Terpenoids on Heliothis virescens Development, Rev. Latinamer. Chim., 1987, 18, 119.

46. S. B. Vinson, G. W. Elzen, and H. J. Williams, The Influence of Volatile Plant Allelochemics on the Third Trophic Level (Parasitoids) and Their Herbivorous Hosts, in V. Labeyrie, G. Fabres, and D. Lachaise, eds., Insects-Plants, Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Insect-Plant Relationships (PAU 1986), Dr. W. Junk, Publ.,  Dordrecht, 1987, p.109.

47. H. J. Williams, M. Wong, R. A. Wharton, and S. B. Vinson, Hagen's Gland Morphology and Chemical Content Analysis for Three Species of Parasitic Wasps (Hymenoptera:  Braconidae), J. Chem. Ecol., 1988, 14, 1727.

48. T. N. Shaver, H. E. Brown, H. J. Williams, L. T. Woods, and J. Worley, Components of the Female Sex Pheromone of Eoreuma loftini Dyar, J. Chem. Ecol., 1988, 14, 391.

49. G. H. Gunasena, S. B. Vinson, H. J. Williams, and R. D. Stipanovic, Effects of Caryophyllene, Caryophyllene Oxide, and Their Interaction with Gossypol on the Growth and Development of Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera:  Noctuidae), J. Econ. Entomol., 1988, 81, 93.

50. H. J. Williams, A. I. Scott, W. Woolfenden, D. Grant, S. B. Vinson, G. W. Elzen, and E. Baehrecke, In vivo and Solid State 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Tyrosine Metabolism During Insect Cuticle Formation, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 1988, 89B, 317.

51. B. Lin, J. A. Anderson, H. J. Williams, and A. I. Scott, Deoxygenation of Phenolic Natural Products.  Enzymatic Conversion of Emodin to Chrysophanol, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1988, 110, 1623.

52. H. J. Williams, Y. Gao, and A. I. Scott, Use of Fluoroptic Thermometer Temperature Sensing for High Resolution Temperature Controlled NMR Applications, J. Magn. Res., 1988, 78, 338.

53. H. J. Williams, Y. Gao, and A. I. Scott, Non-Contaminating Pumped System for NMR Cell Culture Studies, TAMU NMR Newsletter, 1988, 352, 22.

54. M. D. Gonzales, S. K. Grant, H. J. Williams, and A. I. Scott, Analytical and Preparative Separation of Uroporphyrin I and III by High Performance Liquid Chromatography, J. Chromatog., 1988, 437, 311.

55. A. M. Villarreal, X. A. Dominguez, H. J. Williams, A. I. Scott, and J. Reibenspies, Citlalitrione, a New Diterpene from Jatropha dioica var. sessilifloria, J. Nat. Prod., 1988, 51, 749.

56. A. I. Scott, N. J. Stolowich, H. J. Williams, M. D. Gonzalez, C. A. Roessner, S. K. Grant, and C. Pichon, Concerning the Catalytic Site of Porphobilinogen Deaminase, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1988, 110, 5898.

57. G. E. Spates, M. Elissalde, and H. J. Williams,  Lipid Composition of Housefly Microsomes, Arch. Ins. Biochem. Physiol., 1988, 7, 47.

58. H. J. Williams, G. W. Elzen, and S. B. Vinson,  Parasitoid- Host-Plant Interactions, Emphasizing Cotton (Gossypium), p. 171- 200 in P. Barbosa, Ed., Novel Aspects of Insect Plant Interactions, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1988.

59. A. I. Scott, C. A. Roessner, N. J. Stolowich, P. Karuso, H. J. Williams, S. K. Grant, M. D. Gonzalez, and T. Hoshino, Site- Directed Mutagenesis and High-Resolution NMR Spectroscopy of the Active Site of Porphobilinogen Deaminase, Biochem. 1988, 27, 7984.

60. P. M. Jordan, M. J. Warren, A. I. Scott, H. J. Williams, N. J. Stolowich and C. A. Roessner, Identification of a Cysteine Residue as the Binding Site for the Dipyrromethane Cofactor at the Active Site of Eschericia coli Porphobilinogen Deaminase by 13C NMR, FEBS Lett. 1988, 235, 189.

61. A. A. Bell, R. D. Stipanovic, and H. J. Williams, Qualitative variations in the Volatile Terpenes Produced by Selected Texas Race Stocks of Gossypium hirsutum.  Proc. Beltwide Cotton Prod. 1988, p. 553.

62. E. H. Baehrecke, H. J. Williams, and S. B. Vinson, Electroantennogram Responses of Campoletis sonorensis(Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) to Chemicals in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), J. Chem. Ecol., 1989, 15, 37.

63. G. H. Gunasena, S. B. Vinson, H. J. Williams, and R. D. Stipanovic, Development and Survival of the Endoparasitoid Campoletis sonorensis (Hymenoptera:  Ichneumonidae) Reared from Gossypol Exposed  (Heliothis virescens F.) (Lepidoptera:  Noctuidae), Environ. Entomol., 1989, 18, 886.

64. G. H. Gunasena, S. B. Vinson, and H. J. Williams, Interrelationships Between Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera:  Noctuidae) Growth and Its Parasitoid, Campoletis sonorensis (Hymenoptera:  Ichneumonidae), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer., 1989, 82, 187.

65. M. R. Strand, H. J. Williams, S. B. Vinson, and A. Mudd, Kairomonal Activities of 2-Acylcyclohexane-1,3-Diones Produced by Ephestia kuehniella Zellerin Eliciting Searching Behavior by the Parasitoid Bracon hebetor (Say) , J. Chem. Ecol., 1989, 15, 1491.

66. M. G. Rojas, R. D. Stipanovic, H. J. Williams, and S. B. Vinson, A Method for the Preparation of Labelled Gossypol by the Incorporation of 14C Acetate, J. Labeled Compounds Radiopharm., 1989, XXVII, 995.

67. A. I. Scott, H. J. Williams, N. J. Stolowich, P. Karuso, M. D. Gonzales, F. Blanche, F. D. Thibaut, G. Muller, E. Savvidis, and K. Hlineney, The Structure of Sirohydrochlorin I, a Dimethylisobacteriochlorin Derived from Uroporphyrinogen I, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 1989, 522.

68. A. I. Scott, H. J. Williams, N. J. Stolowich, P. Karuso, M. D. Gonzales, G. Muller, G. Worner, and E. Savvidis, Temporal Resolution of the Methylation Sequence of Vitamin B12Biosynthesis,  J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1989, 111, 1897.

69. G. H. Gunasena, S. B. Vinson, and  H. J. Williams, Determination of Larval Instars:  Occurrence of Supernumerary Instars in Heliothis virescens, Southwestern Entomologist, 1989, 14, 83.

70. X. A. Dominguez, S. Garcia-G., H. J. Williams, C. Ortiz, A. I. Scott, and J. H. Reibenspies, Kukulkanins A and B, New Chalcones from Mimosa tenuefolia, J. Nat. Prod., 1989, 52, 864.

71. J. H. Reibenspies, H. J. Williams, C. Ortiz, A. I. Scott, M. Suarez, and X. A. Dominguez, Crystal and Molecular Structure of Lapachenole, J. Crys. Spectros. Res, 1989, 19, 597.

72. G. W. Frankie, S. B. Vinson, and H. J. Williams,  Ecological and Evolutionary Sorting of 12 Sympatric Species of CentrisBees in Costa Rican Dry Forest, Book chapter in J. Bock and Y. Linhart, eds. AT3/AIBS, Baker Publ., New York, 1989.

73. S. B. Vinson, H. J. Williams, H. J. McAuslane, and G. W. Frankie, Chemical Contents of Male Mandibular Glands of Three Centris Species (Hymenoptera:  Anthophoridae) from Costa Rica, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 1989, 93B, 73.

74. G. H. Gunasena, S. B. Vinson, and H. J. Williams, Effects of Nicotine on Growth, Development and Survival of the Tobacco Budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera:  Noctuidae) and the Parasitoid Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron) (Hymenoptera:  Ichneumonidae), J. Econ. Entomol., 1990, 83, 1777.

75. E. H. Baehrecke, S. B. Vinson, and H. J. Williams, Foraging Behavior of Campoletis sonorensis in Response to Heliothis virescens and Cotton Plants, Entomol. exp. appl., 1990, 55, 47.

76. H. J. McAuslane, S. B. Vinson, and H. J. Williams, Influence of Host Plant on Mate Location by the Parasitoid Campoletis sonorensis (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Environ. Entomol. 1990, 19, 26.

77. G. W. Frankie, S. B. Vinson, R. E. Coville, and H. J. Williams, Chemical Aspects of Territorial and Mating Behavior in Centris adani, National Geographic Society Reports on Ongoing Research, 1990, 231.

78. H. J. McAuslane, S. B. Vinson and H. J. Williams, Change in Mandibular and Mesosomal Gland Contents of Male Xylocopa micans(Hymenoptera:  Anthophoridae) Associated with Mating Strategy, J. Chem. Ecol., 1990, 16, 1877.

79. M. J. Warren, M. D. Gonzalez, H. J. Williams, N. J. Stolowich, and A. I. Scott, Uroporphyrinogen III Methylase Catalyzes the Enzymatic Synthesis of Sirohydrochlorins II and IV by a Clockwise Mechanism, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1990, 112, 5343.

80. H. J. McAuslane, S. B. Vinson, and H. J. Williams, Effect of Host Diet on Flight Behavior of the Parasitoid Campoletis sonorensis (Hymenoptera:  Ichneumonidae), J. Entomol. Sci. 1990, 25, 562.

81. T. Hoshino, H. J. Williams, K. Shishido, and A. I. Scott, Synthesis of 10,15-[13C2]Squalene and -DL-Squaleneoxide, J. Labelled Comp. Radiopharm., 1990, XXVIII, 1285.

82. M. G. Rojas, H. J. Williams, R. D. Stipanovic, S. B. Vinson, and J. Reibenspeis, A Detoxification Product of the Xenobiotic Methyl Parasept by Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera:  Noctuidae), Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 1990, 96C, 281.

83. H. Hamada, A. R. Jacobson, H. J. Williams, and A. I. Scott, Deacetylation  of Vindoline by Buffered Cell Suspension Cultures of Catharanthus roseus, Biotech. Lett., 1990, 12, 897.

84. C. Tellier, H. J. Williams, Y. Gao, C. Ortiz, N. J. Stolowich, and A. I. Scott, Selective 13C Edited NOESY Spectroscopy in Proteins Using a Heteronuclear Half Gaussian Pulse, J. Magn. Reson., 1990, 90, 600.

85. H. J. McAuslane, S. B. Vinson and H. J. Williams, Influence of Adult Experience on Host Microhabitat Location by the Generalist Parasitoid, Campoletis sonorensis, J. Insect Behav., 1991, 4, 101.

86. H. J. McAuslane, S. B. Vinson, and H. J. Williams, Stimuli Influencing Host Microhabitat Location by Campoletis sonorensis(Cameron), Entomol. Exp. Appl., 1991, 58, 267.

87. T. Higaki, S. Tanase, F. Nagashima, Y. Morino, A. I. Scott, H. J. Williams, and N. J. Stolowich, Porcine Cytosolic Aspartate Aminotransferase Reconstituted with [4'-13C]-Pyridoxal Phosphate.  pH and Ligand Induced Changes of the Coenzyme Observed by 13C NMR Spectroscopy, Biochem., 1991, 30, 2519.
 
88. T. Hoshino, H. J. Williams, Y. Chung, and A. I. Scott, Partial Purification and Characterization of Oxidosqualene-Lanosterol Cyclase from Baker's Yeast, Tetrahedron, 1991, 47, 5925.
 
89. C. Ortiz, N. J. Stolowich, H. J. Williams, and A. I. Scott, Diastereotopic Binding of the Natural Inhibitor Leupeptin to Trypsin.  Resolution of a Crystallographic Enigma by NMR Spectroscopy, Proceedings of 1990 symposium, CDRI, Lucknow, India, 1991.

90. C. Ortiz, C. Tellier, H. J. Williams, N. J. Stolowich, and A. I. Scott, Diastereotopic Covalent Binding of the Natural Inhibitor Leupeptin to Trypsin.  Detection of Two Interconverting Hemiacetals by Solution and Solid State NMR Spectroscopy, Biochem., 1991, 30, 10026.

91. T. R. Narasimhan, S. Safe, H. J. Williams, and A. I. Scott, Effects of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on 17 - Estradiol-Induced Glucose  Metabolism in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells:  13C-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Studies, Mol. Pharmacol., 1991, 40, 1029.

92. S. B. Vinson and H. J. Williams, Host Selection Behavior of Campoletis sonorensis: A Model System, Biol. Control, 1991, 1, 107.

93.  H. Hamada, H. Konishi, H. J. Williams, and A. I. Scott, Biotransformation of Testosterone Isomers by a Green Cell Suspension Culture of Marchantia polymorpha, Phytochem. 1991, 30, 2269.

94. C. Holler, H. J. Williams, and S. B. Vinson, Evidence for a Two-Component External Marking Pheromone System in an Aphid Hyperparasitoid, J. Chem. Ecol., 1991, 17, 1021.

95. J. Leos-Martinez, M. Gonzalez-Alonso, and H. J. Williams, Atractividad de Trunc-Call 1 y 2 para el Barrenador Mayor de los Granos, Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera:  Bostrichidae) pp. 25-38 In: "Memorias del III Simposio Nacional sobre Problemas Entomologicos de Granos Almacenados",  Sociedad Mexicana de Entomologia, Mayo 1991, Veracruz, Ver., Mexico.

96. A. I. Scott, N. J. Stolowich, B. Atshaves, P. Karuso, M. J. Warren, and H. J. Williams, Timing and Mechanistic Implications of Regiospecific Carbonyl Oxygen Isotope Exchange During Vitamin B12 Biosynthesis, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1991, 113, 9891.

97. G. Muller, F. Zipfel, D. Hlineny, E. Savvidis, R. Hertle, U. Traub-Eberhard, A. I. Scott, H. J. Williams, N. J. Stolowich, P. J. Santander, M. J. Warren, F. Blanche, D. Thibaut, Timing of Cobalt Insertion in Vitamin B12 Biosynthesis, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1991, 113, 9893.

98. H. J. Williams, Y. Gao, and A. I. Scott, Simple Devices for Sterile Aeration and Mixing in NMR Cell Metabolism Studies, J. Mag. Res. 1991, 94, 405.

99. X. A. Dominguez, H. Sanchez V., S. Garcia-G., G. Espinosa B., H. J. Williams, C. Ortiz, A. I. Scott, and J. H. Reibenspies, Isolation and Identification of Xochitloldione and Isoxochitlolone from Cnidosculus urens L., J. Nat. Prod., 1992, 55, 221.

100. E. Gaggelli, G. Valensin, N. J. Stolowich, H. J. Williams, and A. I. Scott, Conformation of Vinblastine in Aqueous Solution Detected by 2D 1H- and 13C-NMR Spectroscopy, J. Nat. Prod., 1992, 55, 285.

101. J. H. Reibenspies, H. J. Williams, C. Ortiz, A. I. Scott, X. A. Dominguez, E. Gomez, and G. Espinosa B., Crystal and Molecular Structure of Echinocistic Acid Diacetate, A Secondary Metabolite Isolated from Cucurbita faetidissima H. B. K., J. Crys. Spectros. Res., 1992, 22, 119.

102. C. A. Roessner, R. Devagupta, M. Hasan, H. J. Williams, and A. I. Scott,  Purification of an Indole Alkaloid Biosynthetic Enzyme, Strictosidine Synthase, from a Recombinant Strain of Escherichia coli, Protein Expression and Purification, 1992, 3, 295.

103. M. G. Rojas, R. D. Stipanovic, H. J. Williams, and S. B. Vinson, Metabolism of Gossypol by Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera:  Noctuidae), Environ. Entomol.,  1992, 21, 518.

104. H. Hamada, H. J. Williams, Y Gao, and A. I. Scott, 13C NMR Studies of Plant Cell Culture Metabolism Using Stirred Aerated Media:  Metabolism of 1-13C- Glucose in Catharanthus roseus Cell Suspensions, Biopractice, 1992, 1, 56.

105. M. D. Gonzalez, H. J. Williams, P. J. Santander, S. Ozaki, N. J. Stolowich, and A. I. Scott, 1H and 13C NMR Studies of Sirohydrochlorin (Factor II) and its 20-Methyl Deriviative (Factor III), Tetrahedron, 1992, 29, 5951.

106. H. J. Williams, A. I. Scott, R. A. Dieden, C. S. Swindell, L. E. Chirlian, M. M. Francl, J. M. Heerding, and N. E. Krauss, NMR and Molecular Modeling Study of the Conformations of Taxol and of its Side Chain Methylester in Aqueous and Non-Aqueous Solution, Tetrahedron,1993, 49, 6545.

107. A. A. Ahmed, A. A. Mahmoud, H. J. Williams, A. I. Scott, and J. H. Reibenspies, and T. J. Mabry, New Sesquiterpene  -Methylene Lactones from the Egyptian Plant Jasonia candicans, J. Nat. Prod. 1993, 56, 1276.

108. H. Hamada, K. Nakazawa, H. J. Williams, and A. I. Scott, A Significant Increase in Vindoline Content of Leaves of Catharanthus roseus is induced by UV Light Irradiation, Pharm. Pharmacol. Lett. 1993, 2, 218.

109. M. Moore, T. R. Narasimhan, X. Wang, V. Krishnan, S. Safe, H. J. Williams, and A. I. Scott, Interaction of 2,3,7,8- Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 12-O- TetraDecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and 17 - Estradiol in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells, J. Steroid Biochem. Molec. Biol. 1993, 44, 251.

110. L. Mattiacci, S. B. Vinson, H. J. Williams, J. R. Aldrich, and F. Bin, A Long-Range Attractant Kairomone for Egg Parasitoid Trissolcus basalis, Isolated from Defensive Secretion of its Host, Nezara viridula, J. Chem. Ecol., 1993, 19, 1167.

111. H. Hamada, K. Nakazawa, M. Inoguchi, H. J. Williams, and A. I. Scott, High Level Production of Serpentine by Tumorous Catharanthus roseus Cells, Pharm. Pharmacol. Lett., 1993, 3, 49.

112. A. I. Scott, P. Karuso, H. J. Williams, J. Lally, J. Robinson, and G. P. Nayar, Investigation of a Coenzyme B12 Model Reaction by 13C NMR Spectroscopy:  Characterization of a Radical Fragmentation Product, J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 1994, 116, 777.

113. H. Hamada, Y. Fuchikami, Y. Ikematsu, T. Hirata, H. J. Williams, and A. I. Scott, Hydroxylation of Piperitone by Cell Suspension Cultures of Catharanthus roseus., Phytochem., 1994, 37, 1037.

114. S. B. Vinson, H. J. Williams, and J. Lu, Identification of Different Compounds from Different Plants Responsible for the Orientation of Campoletis sonorensis to Potential Host Sites, Norwegian J. Agric. Sci., 1994, Supplement 16, 207.

115. H. J. Williams, A. I. Scott, R. A. Dieden, C. S. Swindell, L. E. Chirlian, M. M. Francl, J. M. Heerding, and N. E. Krauss, NMR and Molecular Modeling Study of Active and Non- Active Taxol Analogues in Aqueous and Non- Aqueous Solution, Can. J. Chem., 1994, 72, 252.

116. J. Leos-Martinez, M. Gonzalez-Alonso, and H. J. Williams, Optimization of Pheromonal Trapping Methods for Prostephanus truncatus(Horn) (Coleoptera:  Bostrichidae), J. Stored Prod. Res. 1995, 31, 103.

117. H. J. Williams, I. Sattler, G. Moyna, A. I. Scott, A. A. Bell, and S. B.  Vinson, Diversity in Cyclic Sesquiterpene Production by Gossypium hirsutum L., Phytochem. 1995, 40, 1633.

118. M. G. Rojas, S. B. Vinson, and H. J. Williams, Supplemental Feeding  Increases the Utilization of a Factitious Host for Rearing Bracon thurberiphagae Muesebeck (Hymenoptera:  Braconidae) a Parasitoid of Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Boheman (Coleoptera:  Curculionidae), Biological Control, 1995, 5, 591.

119. J. Park, C. Min, H. Williams, and A. I. Scott, Synthesis of (+)-15E)&(15Z)- 16-Oxa-2,3-oxidosqualenes, Tetrahedron Lett., 1995, 32, 5719.

120. S. B. Vinson, G. W. Frankie, and H. J. Williams, Chemical Ecology of Bees of the Genus Centris (Hymenoptera:  Apidae), Florida Entomol., 1996, 79, 109.

121. H. J. Williams, G. Moyna, A. I. Scott, S. S. Swindell, L. E. Chirlian, J. M. Heerding, and D. K. Williams, NMR and Molecular Modeling Study of the Conformations of Taxol 2'-Acetate in Chloroform and Aqueous Dimethylsulfoxide Solutions, J. Med. Chem., 1996, 39, 1555..

122. G. Moyna, H. J. Williams, and A. I. Scott, An Improved Procedure for the Epoxidation of Methyl Cinnamate Derivatives and Production of Acid Sensitive Epoxides, Syn. Commun., 1996, 26, 2235.

123. W. R. Klemm and H. J. Williams, Amphiphilic Binding Site of Ethanol in Reversed Lipid Micelles, Alcohol, 1996, 13, 133.
 
124. Hamada, K. Sanada, S. Ikeda, T. Oda, H. J. Williams, G. Moyna, and A. I. Scott, Epimerization of Taxol in Human Cancer Cells, Natural Prod. Letts., 1996, 8, 113.

125. R. D. Stipanovic, H. J. Williams, I. Sattler, A. I. Scott, S. B. Vinson, and J. Liu, Preparation of Two Stereochemically Defined Isomers of Deuterium Labeled  d-Cadinene, J. Labelled Comp. Radiopharm. 1996, XXXIX, 223.

126. G. Moyna, S. Mediwala, H. J. Williams, and A. I. Scott, A Simple Algorithm for Superimposing Sets of NMR Derived Structures:  Its Application to the Conformational Study of Cephalomannine in Lipophobic and Lipophilic Solution, J. Chem. Inform. Comput. Sci. 1996, 36, 1224.

127. A. A. Ahmed, M. M. Abd El-Razek, E. A. Abu Mostafa, H. J. Williams, A. A. Scott, J. H. Reibenspies, and T. J. Mabry, A New Derivative of Glucose and 2-C-Methyl-D-erythritol from Ferula sinaica, J. Nat. Prod., 1996, 59, 1171.

128. G. Moyna, H. J. Williams, and A. I. Scott, Preparation of Aminated Taxol Side Chain Precursors.  A Simple Approach to 2,3-Diamino Acids Using the  d-Lactam Synthon Method, Synthetic Commun. 1997, 27, 1561.

129. V. A. Roberts, R. J. Nachman, G. M. Coast, M. Hariharan, J. S. Chung, G. M. Holman, H. J. Williams, and J. A. Tainer, Consensus Chemistry and  b-Turn Conformation of the Active Core of the Insect Kinin Neuropeptide Family, Chem. & Biol. 1997, 2, 105.

130. H. Hamada, H. Yasamune, Y. Fuchikami, T. Hirata, I. Sattler, H. J. Williams, and A. I. Scott, Biotransformation of Geraniol, Nerol, and (+)-and (-)-Carvone by Suspension Cultured Cells of Catharanthus roseus, Phytochem. 1997, 44, 615.

131. S. B. Vinson, H. J. Williams, G. W. Frankie, and G. Shrum, Floral Lipid Chemistry of Byrsonima crassifolia (Malpigheaceae) and a Use of Floral Lipids by Centris Bees (Hymenoptera:  Apidae), Biotropica 1997, 29, 76.

132. G. Moyna, G. Hernandez, H. J. Williams, R. J. Nachman, and A. I. Scott, Development of Weiner et al. Force Field Parameters Suitable for Conformational Studies of [1,4]- Benzodiazepines and Related Compounds, J. Chem. Inform. Comput. Sci., 1997, 37, 951.

133. G. Moyna, H. J. Williams, A. I. Scott, I. Ringel, and C. S. Swindell, Conformational Studies of Taxol Analogs Modified at the C-2' Position in Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Solvent Systems, J. Med. Chem., 1997, 40, 3305.

134. A. A. Ahmed, T. K. Mohamed, H. J. Williams, A. I. Scott, and J. H. Reibenspies, Structure Revision of Cleoamblynol A from Cleome amblyocarpa, Nat. Prod. Lett., 1997, 10, 239.

135. R. J. Nachman, G. Moyna, H. J. Williams, C. Garside, and S. S. Tobe, Active Conformation and Peptidase Resistance of Conformationally Restricted Analogues of the Insect Allatostatin Neuropeptide Family, Proceedings of the XIII International Congress of Comparative Endocrinology, Yokohama, Japan, November 16-21, 1997.

136. H. J. Williams, G. Moyna, S. B. Vinson, A. Ian. Scott, A. A. Bell, and R. D. Stipanovic,  b-Caryophyllene Derivatives from the Wild Cottons Gossypium armourianum Kearn., Gossypium harknessii Brandg., and Gossypium turneri Fryx., Nat. Prod. Lett., 1998, 11, 25.

137. G. Moyna, R. Zauhar, H. J. Williams, R. J. Nachman, and A. I. Scott, Comparison of Ring Current Methods for use in Molecular Modeling Refinement of NMR Derived Three Dimensional Structures, J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci. 1998, 38, 702.

138. A. A. Ahmed, B. A. A. Balboul, A. I. Scott, H. J. Williams, KB. Miao, and T. J. Mabry, Eudesmane derivatives from Iva frutescens, Phytochem. 1998, 47, 411.

139. R. J. Nachman, G. Moyna, H. J. Williams, S. S. Tobe, and A. I. Scott, Synthesis, Biological Activity, and Conformational Studies of Insect Allatostatin Neuropeptide Analogues Incorporating Turn-Promoting Moities, Bioorg. & Med. Chem. 1998, 6, 1379.

140. H. Hamada, H. J. Williams, and A. I. Scott, Biotransformation of Epoxyprogesterone by Buffered Cell Suspension Culture of Catharanthus roseus, Phytochem., submitted.

141. H. Hamada, H. J. Williams, and A. I. Scott, Biotransformation of Vinblastine by Cell Suspension Cultures of Catharanthus roseus,Biotech. Lett., submitted.

142. M. G. Rojas, S. B. Vinson, J. R. Cate, and H. J. Williams, Development of Two Bracon Species Attacking the Boll Weevil and Studies on Host Feeding, Southwestern Entomol., submitted.

143. J. Leos-Martinez and H. J. Williams, Daily Periodicity and Lower Temperature  Threshold for Flight to a Pheromone Source by Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera:  Bostrichidae), J. Stored Prod. Res., submitted.

144. M. G. Rojas, S. B. Vinson, and H. J. Williams, A Comparison of the Development and Host Feeding of Two Bracon Species Attacking the Boll Weevil, Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer., submitted.

145. M. G. Rojas, S. B. Vinson, H. J. Williams, and R. D. Stipanovic, Response of Bracon thurberiphagae (Hymenoptera:  Braconidae), a Parasitoid of the Boll Weevil, to Chemicals of Its Host Food Plant and Host,  J. Chem. Ecol., submitted.
 


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