Solitary Bee Research
    Research on solitary bees has focused on the genus Centris and Xylocopa, although several studies have involved other genera including the honey bee.  Much of the research has been collaboration with Dr. Gordon Frankie (U.C. Berkeley) in Costa Rica.
    Research involving Xylocopa includes resource marking by females, the territorial behavior of males, and the source and chemistry of male territorial pheromones.
    Research with Centris involves over 14 species.  Studies have included the territorial behavior, the source and chemistry of the male territorial pheromones, nesting biology and nest parasites, and more recently competition and specificity of various bee groups with respect to resources.
    Between 1981 to 1983 Dr. Frankie and I, along with a number of collaborators, documented plants and animals in an area now known as "Lomas Barbudal".  Our cooperative efforts led to the establishment of Lomas Barbudal as a national park in 1984.  Much of our bee research is still conducted in and around this park.

References on solitary bee biology by S.B. Vinson

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